Other statistical sources

Other institutions and organisations in addition to Unia also develop scientifically substantiated information about discrimination and equal opportunities.

European research


The Eurobarometer is a series of large-scale public opinion surveys held in all European member states on a wide range of current topics. The surveys explore issues such as attitudes towards and perception of discrimination and positions on various policy measures for combating discrimination.

European Social Survey

The European Social Survey (ESS) is a scientific survey held every two years in over 30 countries that documents the attitudes, beliefs and behavioural patterns of the population. It includes questions about the perception of discrimination, social exclusion, politics, religion and attitudes towards immigration and well-being.


EU-MIDIS is a large-scale study on discrimination and victims of discrimination among ethnic minorities and immigrants in the European member states. The most recent data collection took place in 2015.

LGBT Survey 

The LGBT Survey investigated discrimination, violence and harassment in the European member states experienced by people who are lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender. The data was collected in 2012.

Antisemitism Survey

The Antisemitism Survey investigated experiences and perceptions of anti-Semitism, hate crimes and discrimination against Jews in eight European countries. The data was collected in 2012.

European Handbook on Equality Data

The European Handbook on Equality Data investigates what type of data needs to be gathered on discrimination and equality (referred to as 'equality data') and makes recommendations on how to do this.

Ethnic Origin and Disability Data Collection in Europe

The report Ethnic Origin and Disability Data Collection in Europe is published within the framework of the Equality Data Initiative, a project launched by the Open Society Foundations in collaboration with the Migration Policy Group and the European Network Against Racism to increase awareness within the European Union for the need to collect reliable data for groups at risk of discrimination.


Pisa is a survey held every three years that evaluates educational systems worldwide. It tests the skills and knowledge of 15-year-olds in three areas: reading, mathematics and science. It also provides information on how factors within and outside of school are linked to student performance.

Belgian research

Vlaamse Migratie- en Integratiemonitor

The Vlaamse Migratie-en Integratiemonitor (Flemish migration and integration monitor) compiles data on migration and the integration processes of aliens and people of foreign origin in Flanders. The most recent edition was published in 2018.

Vlaamse Herkomstmonitor

The Vlaamse Herkomstmonitor (Flemish origins monitor) describes the position on the labour market of people of foreign origin in Flanders. The first edition was published in 2015.

Gelijke toegang tot huisvesting voor elke Gentenaar: research report

The report Gelijke toegang tot huisvesting voor elke Gentenaar (Equal access to housing for all Ghent residents) investigates discrimination and social exclusion in the rental housing market in Ghent. The report contains the results of practical tests carried out for 3,419 Ghent rental units, commissioned by the Ghent city council.

The studies by the Steunpunt Gelijkekansenbeleid

The Steunpunt Gelijkekansenbeleid (Policy Research Centre on Equality Policies) conducted research between 2002 and 2015 relevant to the policy on (in)equality and inclusion in Flanders. The research was focused on ethnic origins, LGBT, age, disability, gender, antidiscrimination law and transversal themes.

The studies by the Instituut voor de gelijkheid van vrouwen en mannen

The Institute for the equality of women and men publishes research on gender, the equality of women and men and equal opportunities on its website.

The studies by the King Baudouin Foundation

As an independent and pluralistic organisation, in order to make an innovative contribution to respect for diversity, the King Baudouin Foundation commissions research on social justice. This covers themes linked to the work of Unia, such as society, integration and self-discrimination.